Scientists make observations which serve as their data collection.
Based on the observations, the scientist creates a hypothesis, which is a testable statement that may or not answer the question.
The hypothesis can be tested in experiments, Data can be collected by observing natural surroundings or a controlled environment. It is essential that the procedure is clear and can be easily repeated if necessary.
Analyze the results of experimentation. Data can be analyzed in the form of tables, graphs, diagrams, and more. This step is the key to find patterns, if any, amongst the data collected.
Formulate a conclusion based on the results. At this stage the scientists determine whether or nor their evidence supports their hypothesis.