pp. 881-903

1.  Focus Question: Why did Europe remain in a state of international tension during the 1920s and 1930s?
What two broad factors accounted for the experimentation in politics and economic life after the Paris peace settlement?  Why did the Versailles settlement foster both resentment and discontent in numerous countries?  Which nation, more than any other, felt that the terms of the treaty were not being enforced vigorously?  What three factors combined to intensify the effects of the Great Depression?  Why did the French invade the German Ruhr in 1923?  What were the results?  Which country invested heavily in Germany following WWI?  What brought on the crash of Wall Street in October 1929?  What impact did it have on the world economy?  When and why did Germany's reparation payments end? Why did agricultural prices decline in the 1920s?  What impact did this have upon the world economy?  What type of governmental experimentation did Britain and France attempt in the face of the Depression?
2. Focus Question: What were the chief characteristics of the Soviet Experiment?
How did the dictatorship of the Bolsheviks differ from that of the Italian Fascists and the German Nazis? What percentage of the population were members of the Russian Communist party in the early days?  What impact did the presence of communist Russia have on the policies of other European nations?  What was the nature of "War  Communism"? Why did Lenin institute his New Economic Policy (NEP)?  What type of society did it create? What was the real issue between Stalin and Trotsky?  What particular dispute provided the "excuse" for their struggle?  Why did Stalin win?
3.8 Focus Question: How did Stalin change the Soviet Union and why did these changes impress many Western intellectuals?
How was the social cost of Stalin's collectivization policy?  How many peasants were killed during rural collectivization?  Why did the soviets believe that collectivization was necessary?  How successful were the soviets in achieving industrialization between 1928 and WWII?  How did they pay for industrialization?  Who made industrial decisions?  How did many Western writers and intellectuals perceive Soviet industrialization and society during the early 1930's?  What event sparked the Great Purges?  What rational explanation is there for the Great Purges, and what impact did they have on the Communist party?
4. Focus Question: What was the nature of facist Italy?  Who led it and why was he successful?
What were the general characteristics of fascism?  The Fasci di Combattimento membership came mostly from what group?  What was the Italians main complaint about the Versailles Treaty?  What type of politician was Mussolini?  What was his one political rule?  Which class did Mussolini finally lend his support to?  What means did the Italian Fascists use to come to power?  Was it legal or not?  How did Mussolini achieve a one party state?  What agreement did Mussolini reach with the Church?
5. Focus Question:  What was the nature of the Weimar Republic and what factors undermined its effectiveness?
Which party in Germany had accepted the terms of the Versailles Treaty?  What was the most serious flaw of the Weimar Constitution?  Why was article 48 important?  What was the hallmark of the first five years of the Weimar Republic?  Why did France invade the Ruhr and what were the consequences of  for France and Germany ?  What factors contributed to the massive German inflation of the 1920's?  Which classes were most severely affected?  Which class profited?  How did the Nazis redefine "socialism?"  To which group did the Nazis tailor their appeal? What organization did the Nazis use to terrorize before coming to power?   How did Hitler come to dominate the Nazi Party?  What was Stresemann's foreign policy?  What did the Locarno Treaty accomplish?  What crisis brought the governmental coalition of 1928 to an end in March 1930?  When and why did the Weimar Republic become a presidential dictatorship? 
6. Focus Question: How did the Nazis consolidate power and implement their policies? 
Why did Hindenburg decide to appoint Hitler chancellor in 1933?  Why did the Nazis win out over other conservative nationalistic parties in coming to power?  How did Hitler consolidate power once in office?  Did the Nazis party ever obtain a majority of the votes in the Reichstag?  What role did the burning of the Reichtag have in the Nazis consolidation of power?   Why did Hitler order RoehmÕs murder?   What was the role of the SS (Schutzstaffel)?  On what was Nazi anti-Semitism based?  What was the Nazi view of the womanÕs role?  What was the Nazi attitude toward family size? 
7. Focus Question:  What factors "brought on" the Great Depression and what were its effects?
What foreign and economic policy did  the U.S. assume after WWI?  What did "normalcy" mean to Presiden Warren Harding?  Which interest group clearlly "had the ear" of the government?  What was the state of the American economy during the first seven or eight years of the 1920s?  What new products began appearing during this period?  How did its economy compare to Europe's after the war?  What issues divided American society?  In what respects was the wealthy of the country divided?  What gave rise to the growth of major criminal organizations?  What factors prompted the Great Depression?  What impact did the disproportioinate amount of money in relatively few hands have on the economy?    What was the most pervasive problem of the Great Depression?  Why do you think that agricultural prices were low during this period?  How did Hoover's attitude of government differ from that of Franklin Delano Roosevelt? 
8. Focus Question:  How did the role of government fundamentally change as a result of the Great Depression?
What was Franklin Delano Roosevelt's first goal?  What actions did he take during the first "100 days?"  How did the American labor unions change during the Great Depression?  What was the role of the National Recovery Administration and why (do you think) was it declared unconstitional by the Supreme Court in 1935?  In what two ways did the role of government change during the New Deal?  What was the result of the New Deal legislation on the American economy?  What event brought the U.S. economy to a full level of employment and thus ended the Depression?  What two factors spawned world wide authoritarianism following WWI?
9. Focus Question:  What was the relationship between the economic and political turmoil of the inter-war period?
What was the fate of many liberal governments in the inter-war period? Why were governments more willing to take a role in the economic life of the country in ways that they had previously avoided?  Beside economic factors, what other elements contributed to the formation of authoritarian government? What were the Soviet and American experiments of this period alike/different?