I. Wittgenstein's intentions
A. The "stimulation" froma) Frege
c) Heinrich Hertz
d) his own existential situation
B. What his intentions were assumed to bea) by Russell
b) by the positivists
II. Why the book is so difficult
A. its "style"
B. it is concerned with what can't be said
III. What can be said
A. LanguageIV. What cannot be said1. Assumptions of a logically perfect languageB. Ontologya) concerned to communicate true/false information2. "Meaning"
b) posed as a "what if" Frege's point of departure is taken to its ultimate conclusion
c) Wittgenstein's later self-criticisma) Tractatus's "meaning" = Frege's "reference" (Bedeutung)3. Names
b) "Sense" (Sinn) same as Frege's but for Tractatus "names" have no sensea) mean (refer to) objects4. Propositions - the "Picture Theory of Meaning"
b) to understand a name is to know the object which it means
c) to know an object is to know its "form" -all (actual or possible) configurations into which the object can enter
d) to understand a name is to be able to understand all (true
or false) possible propositions into which it can entera) are the only bearers of "truth value"
b) only propositions have "sense"i. a proposition shows its sensec) have a "logical form" in virtue of which they can show ("picture") a possible state of affairs
ii. the sense of a proposition cannot be said, only shown
iii. as a configuration of objects -the names themselves are objects- a proposition "shows" its sense by configuring the names in a way which stands for the way the objects, to which the names refer, are configured in a state of affairs.
iv. the elements of the proposition which are not names of objects arrange the objects in a "state of affairs"
iv. the sense of a proposition is a "thought"
v. the meaning (reference) of a proposition is a state of affairs
vi. the reference of true propositions are called "facts"
vii. of all possible states of affairs, "facts" are the actual onesi. to understand a proposition is to understand its logical form
ii. logical form cannot be said, it can only be exhibited1. objectsC. Logica) must be simple2. states of affairsi. concerned that there must be such objectsb) have a "form"
ii. not concerned with what they must be
iii. simple objects can have no parts
iv. that which has parts is complex, composed of simples
v. since change is in the configuration of the simples, simples cannot changei. determines all possible configurations
ii. defines the "logical space" of possibilities into which the object can entera) are the meanings (the referents) of propositions3. facts
b) present the possible configurations of objects, not simple
c) all possible concatenations of objects (determined by their forms) defines the logical space of all possible states of affairs
d) all change is change in the configuration of objects, for objects, being simple, cannot change
d) can be actual or non-actuala) all actual states of affairs4. the world
b) are what can be said
c) language is the instrument for picturing factsa) the totality of facts5. the "self"
b) is that of which we can speak
c) that which is outside of the world (is not a fact) must passed over in silencea) is always the subject which takes the world as its object
b) an extensionless point on the circumference of the world
c) there are no facts about the self
d) cannot be spoken of1. laws of logic are all tautologiesa) they are true because they are true in every logically possible world2. tautologies and contradictions have no sense
b) the are uninformative about this world
c) they are the "logical scaffolding" of the worlda) picture all possibilities are no possibilities3. all propositions which are not non-sensical are either
b) laws of logic are "non-sensical"a) atomic propositions showing a simple state of affairs4. to understand the "truth conditions" of a proposition -the state of affairs which would make it true or make it false- is to understand the proposition
b) truth functional compounds of a)
A. The logical form of propositionsa) the intention of the picture theoryB. Philosophy
b) the link from language to world cannot be languagea) not a scienceC. Ethics
b) no facts of philosophy
c) cannot be body of propositions
d) an activity by which one comes to know what cannot be said
e) Wittgensteinian notion of "analysis"
f) the ladder pulled up behind oneself once one has climbed ita) concerned with the "meaning of life"D. The Mystici) not linguistic meaningb) the "good"
ii) life = world
iii) solipsism = realismi) only facts can be said
ii) facts simply are
iii) to say "this fact is good" is to step outside the world
iv) what lies outside the world cannot be said
v) there can be no science of ethics
vi) the "good" cannot be saida) what can be said is what things are
b) that things are cannot be said
c) wondering and the possibility that things be otherwise